Abstract expressionism & minimalism

American style

post war abstraction– 

Abstract Expressionism

Franzkline New York 1953

-Expression through line and the large scale of the brush strokes and paintings ( important factor to the movement)

– looks like a structure of some sort and evokes the feelings of looking at structures in America

– The colour scheme is monochromatic and gives us a high contrast

 

Timescale: mid 1940’s – late 50’s

Context:

– During and post world war 2, first nuclear bomb used

– lots of European emigres in NY

– post great depression of 1929-39)

– the cold war 1945-80

– federal arts project 1935-43

  • Main artists: Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Willem De Kooning, Franz Klein, Robert Motherwell, Barnett Newman, Clifford Still, Lee Krazner

-All the artists moved to America from Paris because of the war, just after the american depression. They had the chance to set up their own American movement and create these big paintings to fill the streets and brighten the area, which they were being paid to do in teams rather than individual artists allowing them to exchange ideas to create this new movement. –

Themes and Concerns:

– Existentialism

-Synthesis of styles

– Surrealism- but a rejection of freud

– Jung and the ‘collective unconscious’

– The sublime (overwhelming of the senses like you’re blown away)

– Profound emotion, introspection and universal themes

– Reflects post-war anxiety and trauma

– Interested in myths and archetypal symbols ( things that occur in myths and fiction like a Princess, Prince, Witch, Evil step mum, Horse etc.)

– 2 types of abstract expressionism

  •        Gestural (action) paintings
  •        Colour field painting

 

Pollock, Summer time 1948

– Large scale

– busy

– Curved lines

– Limited colour Palette

– Abstract

– Flowing

– organic lines

 

Franz Kline, the chief 1950

– High speed of a train

– movement

– what he remembers as a kid from being and looking out of a train

 

Robert Motherwell, Elegy to the spanish Republic 54 (1957-61)

– life and death contrast using the black and white

-oval

-looks 3D

– The gap at the bottom of the image makes it 3 Dimensional with depth if it wasn’t there it looks more flat

 

Willem De Kooning, Woman 1 1950-52

– Cluttered

– Filled

– Flat

– Colourful

– Bold

– Thick brush strokes

– Clashing

– Complementary

– Out of proportion

– Motherhood?

– He was exploring the archetypal woman: women look beautiful traditionally in paintings (passive) in art but this one is the opposite in the way he’s made it look ugly and quite terrifying. Representing a pin up girl of the 1950s and rejects the traditional passiveness of women.

 

Colour Field Painting

Clyfford Still, Indian red and black

– We can only talk about the image in terms of formal elements therefore we can only agree on line, colour, shape etc. this was due to Clyfford’s idea that the painting could look like anything like animal pattern, peeling paint on a wall or anything that it could look like and therefore you are only able to agree that the painting is based on formal elements.

 

Rothko, Four darks in red 1958

– deep

– one of the most famous abstract expressionism

– been through a lot of paintins before he made this one

– evokes emotion

– big blocks of colour

 

Rothko, untitled 1969

– Moon landings depiction, a response to the images of the first ever pictures of the moon landings

– If you look at the images and the painting together they look almost the same

 

Rothko, Mural for End wall (untitled) 1959

-painted for seagram mural restaurant

– He was asked to paint it for the restaurant and got paid to do so. However after he finished the painting he went to the restaurant to check out how it would look in there and after that decided it wouldn’t fit in or look good there and the people that ate there were mainly upper class business men that wouldn’t appreciate the art work he made and therefore decided to give the money back and donate the painting to the tate modern gallery where he new they’d look after it and present his paintings the way he wanted them to be presented.

 

Abstract Expressionism Review

– 2 types: Gestural and colour field

– A response to post war anxiety and trauma

– painters as heroic

– extentialism

– jung and collective unconscious

– mural size paintins

– communicate surroundings

– importance of crisis

– greenburg and rosenburg

 

Minimalism

– A response to Abstract Expressionism –

 

Carl Andre, Equivalent VIII 1966

– Bricks (industrial materials of everyday life- links to constructivism)

– This way of art gets rid of all association to the artist

– It’s equal to but not the same, in this sense the number and mass to the work is the same but the shape is different

– This piece was bought for £60,000

– No expression through him

 

Timeline: 1960 to mid 1970s

Context and themes:

– reaction against abstraction Expressionism

– influenced by constructivism, De Stijl and Duchamp’s

– Reduction to geometric essentials

– blurs boundries between painting and sculpture

-remove suggestions of self expression

– minimum number of colours, shapes, lines and textures

  • Main artistis: Donald Judd, Frank Stella, Robert Morris

 

– Intellectual group of people; it was more to do with the idea behind the art –

 

Robert Morris, untitled 1967/68 Remade

– Industrial felt

– was made so it fell on it’s own weight

– the idea is not the way it’s presented, as how it would of originally made couldn’t be reconstructed to the exact same position

 

Donald Judd, untitled 1985

– taking the emotion and meaning away by naming it untitled 

-Letting you make your own mind up about the sculpture of how it makes you feel and letting you indulge and evoke this emotion yourself by starring at it rather than having a name pinned to it

 

Review:

  • Minimalism:

– geometric configurations

– Industrial Materials

– Refers to themselves they are objects in their own right

– removal of authorship

Fauvism and Expressionism

Fauvism and Expressionism
– Colour and Distortion-
 
Matisse- The dance (1909-1910)
 
-bright
-use of colour to express their curves
– emotion
-organic
– smooth brush strokes – flat 2D
– warm and cold
-limited palette
-distorted
-simplified 
– bold
-outline
-tribal 
-drumming
-inviting in the viewer – person in the foreground
-makes you feel joyful
 
 
Time scale:
-1898-1908
– context
– important precursor to expressionism
– Disparate group of artists
– rejected Convention of cool colours at the back and warm at the front
– many were pupils of Gustave Moreau who emphasized personal expression
 
Themes and concerns:
– used intense colour to describe light and space and expression emotion
– used pure unmixed colours in thick dabs and smears 
– surface effects 
– impressionist subject matter
– act of painting is an emotional and spontaneous journey
– well being, balance, harmony and serenity
– middle class leisure time 
-main artists: Matisse, Derain, Braque, Raoul Duffy
 
Derain- drying sails 1905
 
– colourful
– middle class
– brush strokes visible
– points in dots
– leading curved line
– unpainted canvas (white) 
– simplified
– horizontal? -vertical? perspective
 
 
Raoul Dufy- sailing boat at Sainte- Adresse 1912
 
– colourful – Cizarre – post impressionism
– simplified
– middle class leisure time
– reflection
– waterfall?
– fence at the bottom?
– bright- white building stands out
– sketched, painted
– on a boat fishing?
 
 
Georges Braque – L’Estaque 1906
 
– leading line (bottom right)
– multi-coloured 
– warm and cold colours
– bold
– busy
– industrial
– unusual use of colour
– pollution
– complimentary
– bold horizontal brush strokes
– direction of the brush strokes, calm and energetic
 
 
Expressionism- German
 
Ernest Ludwig
Kirchner- The Red Tower in Halle 1915:
 
– explosion or cloud- start of WW1 so looks horrific because it’s the start of the war
– simplified 
– looking down – Depth
– Abstract 
-impending doom 
 
 
Time scale:
– 1900-1920
 
Context:
 
– cultural movement
– reaction against naturalism and impressionism
– expressionism is purely personal- individual perspective (not just in paintings)
– in theatre and Music 
– influenced by Munch, Van Gogh, African art and Fauves
 
Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter
-Time scale:
    -Die Brucke 1905
    – Der Blaue Reiter 1908
 
Main Themes:
– sought to express real life by painting harsh and realistic subject matters
– powerful and personal creations created by modern individual perspective
– stress on individual perspective
– intense un-naturalistic colour
– distortion and exaggeration of form
 
Context:
– both expressionist movements 
– challenge and reject elders teaching as traditional, conservative, authoritarian and morally strict 
– literature – Dostoevsky
 
Main Artists:
-Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Fitz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt Rotluff, Emil Nolde 
 
Die Brucke:
 
– similarities with fauves
– emotionally agitated paintings
– new mode of artistic expression
– revived older media woodcut
– rejected bourgeois backgrounds
– manifesto 1906
– Nietzsche 
 
Emil Nolde 
 
Whitsun 1909
 
Prophet 1912 – woodcut piece of Jesus
 
– simplified 
– shadow
– African masks
– flames above their heads
 
Examples:
Frenz Marc large blue horses 1911
– swapped round
– cold at the front warm at the back (opposite to the others)
– abstracted 
– curved
– organic
– repetition
– rhythm
– preferred drawing horses to human being
 
Kandinsky- in the blue 1925
 
– colour in the night shape can cause a soul to vibrate with the universe
– after WW1- peace and harmony 
– looks like oil and watercolours
 
Overview:
-Fauvism
    – intense colour to convey emotion
    – well being, balance, harmony and serenity
    – radical simplification of form primitive and wild
 
-Expressionism
   – Quintessentially German political movement
   – utterly subjective, evokes moods and ideas
   – Delves into the psyche to express subconscious
 
The cabinet of dr. Caligari 1919 -Film
 
-shadows 
-exaggerates
-simplified